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Cultura e Mitologia / 03/12/2020


Candomblé

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Candomblé

Fonte TODA MATERIA

Candomblé is a monotheistic religion that believes in the existence of the soul and in the afterlife.

The word “candomblé” means “dance” or “dance with atabaques” and worship the orixás, normally revered through dances, songs and offerings.

Differences between Candomblé and Umbanda

Candomblé / Umbanda

Strong hierarchy /The hierarchy is not so rigid

5000 years of existence/ Founded in the 20th century

Performs animal sacrifices in specific ceremonies/ Does not perform animal sacrifices

There is only incorporation of entities, but the orixá does not speak, does not give consultations, only gives axé (blessing). Only the father and / or mother of a saint give advice and consultations through Ifá, Buzios. It incorporates embodied entities, that is: spirits that have lived on earth. These give consultations and advice directly to the customer. There is no incorporation of the orixá.

Being a father and / or mother of a saint is equivalent to the Catholic priesthood. So it is difficult for them to have a common life, as there are a number of dietary restrictions, dress and attitudes./ The priest does not need to dedicate himself exclusively to Umbanda.

To support themselves, candomblé houses charge for work done. /It does not charge for services.

History of Candomblé in Brazil

Candomblé

Jorge Amado, writer, kisses the hand of Mãe Menininha do Gantois, considered the greatest saint-mother in Brazil

Candomblé is the practice of African beliefs brought to Brazil by enslaved people. Therefore, it is not an African religion, but Afro-Brazilian.

Therefore, the history of Candomblé is mixed with that of Catholicism. Forbidden to continue with their religion, slaves used the images of the saints to escape the censorship imposed by the Church. This explains the syncretism found in Candomblé in Brazil, something that is not seen in Africa.

Nowadays, however, many candomblé houses do not accept syncretism and seek to return to African origins. Likewise, in the Brazilian version, we have a mixture of orixás various regions of the African continent.

This is due to the fact that the blacks who landed to be slaves were various parts of Africa. Each Orixá represents a force or personification of nature and also a people or a nation

Candomblé, as a religious practice, gained clear contours in Bahia in the middle of the 18th century and was defined during the 20th century. Currently, there are millions of practitioners throughout Brazil, reaching more than 1.5% of the national population.

In order to preserve this heritage of African culture, Federal Law 6292, of December 15, 1975, made certain Candomblé terreiros a material or immaterial heritage that could be listed.

Candomblé Rituals

Appearance of a Candomblé ceremony

Candomblé rituals are, as a rule, performed through songs, dances, drum beats, offerings of vegetables, minerals, objects and, sometimes, sacrifice of some animals.

Participants must wear specific costumes with the colors and guides of their orixá, and each has their own day, color, objects and specific foods, appropriate to their ritual.

A ritual can bring together tens to hundreds of people, varying according to the size of the house that performs the duties and parties. On these occasions, there is a great concern with hygiene and food, as everything must be purified to be worthy of the orixá.

Usually, Candomblé rituals are practiced in houses, gardens or terreiros, which can be of matriarchal, patriarchal or mixed lineage. Consequently, the celebrations are led by the "father or mother of saint" or "babalorixá" and "iyalorixá" respectively.

It should be noted that the succession of these spiritual leaders is hereditary. However, there may be strife in the succession, which often ends up closing the yard.

Finally, it is worth remembering that the followers of Candomblé take seven years to complete their initiation within the stipulated precepts.

Orixás do Candomblé

Some of the Orixás worshiped in Candomblé

Orixás are entities that represent the energy and strength of nature. They play a key role in worship when they are incorporated by more experienced practitioners.

They have specific personalities, abilities, ritual preferences and natural phenomena, which give them different qualities and strengths.

The unique God of Candomblé can vary according to the African region of origin. For Ketu it is Olorum, among Bantus it is Nzambi and for Jeje it is Mawu.

There are hundreds of Orixás, however, the most worshiped in Brazil are:

Exu

Sphere meaning

Day of the week Monday

Red (active) and black (knowledge absorption) colors

Greeting Laroiê (Salve Exu)

Instrument seven irons attached to the same base, facing upwards

Ogum

Meaning war (gun)

Day of the week Tuesday

Dark blue color (metal color when heated in the forge)

Ogunhê greeting, Hello, Ogum

Sword instrument iron

Oxóssi

Meaning night hunter (oxó, hunter; ossi, nocturnal)

Day of the week Thursday

Turquoise color (color of the sky at the beginning of the day)

Greeting O Kiarô! ("okaaro" means good morning in the Yoruba language)

Ofá instrument (bow and arrow)

Xango

Meaning the one that stands out by strength

Day of the week Wednesday

Red (active), white (peace), brown (earth) colors

Greeting Kaô Kabiesilê; come to see being born on the ground

Oxé instrument (double-bladed stone ax) (Oyá)

Iansã

Meaning nine (she had nine children)

Day of the week Wednesday (or Monday)

Red (active and fire) or brown (earth) colors

Greeting And Stopped! - Hi! Jovial and cheerful or What a beautiful sword!

Iruexim instrument (iron or copper handle with a ponytail)

Oxum

Meaning river passing through Oxogbo, Nigerian city

Day of the week Saturday

Golden color (yellow)

Greeting Ora ieiê ô !; play in the waters

Baby instrument (mirror)

Oba

Queen meaning

Day of the week Wednesday

Red color

Greeting Obá xirê! - powerful, strong queen

Dagger instrument

Logum

Meaning acclaimed prince (Odé, relationship with Ogum and Edé, connection with Oxóssi)

Day of the week Thursday

Turquoise and yellow (golden) colors

Greetings Lóci, lóci, Logum! Shout your war cry, warrior prince!

Instrument ofá (bow and arrow) and abebê (mirror)

Nanã

Meaning originally néné / nana / nanã

Day of the week Tuesday

Colors lilac or white streaked with blue

Saluba Nanã! - Hail, owner of the Earth pot!

Ibiri instrument (kind of cane)

Obaluaê

Meaning king, lord of the land

Day of the week Monday

White (peace and healing), black (knowledge) and / or red (activity) colors

Greetings Atotô! Oto, Silence!

Xaxará instrument (kind of magic stick)

Ossaim

Meaning divine light

Day of the week Tuesday (or Thursday)

Green (healing) and white (peace) colors

Greeting Me, I bake! - Oh, leaves!

Seven-pointed metal rod instrument, with a pigeon in the center

Oxumaré

Meaning the one who moves with the rain

Day of the week Tuesday

Yellow (knowledge) and green (health) colors

Greetings Arruboboí! - gbogbo, continuous

Metal snake instrument

Iemanja

Meaning iya, means mother; Omo, son; and Eja, fish

Day of the week Saturday

White and blue colors (translucent crystal)

Greeting O doiá! (odo, river)

Baby instrument (mirror)

Wish

Meaning White light (oxa, light; and ala, white)

Day of the week Friday

White color

Greetings Epa, Nanny! - Hail, father!

Paxorô instrument (kind of staff)

Ibeji / Erês

Meaning ib means to be born; and eji, two

Day of the week Sunday

All colors

Greeting Beje eró! - Call them both!

There is no instrument


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