Within few days of the first round of the elections, around 450 million reais have already been passed on to candidates all over Brazil. The value refers to the sum of the Special Campaign Financing Fund (FEFC) and the Party Fund. Of this amount, 62.9% went to whites, with only 47.9% of the total candidates declaring themselves white.
In 2020, for the first time in the Brazilian elections, the number of self-declared black candidates is greater than that of whites, corresponding to 49.9% of the total. However, the sum of funds transferred to black and brown candidates is 35.7%, still far being proportional.
Even though this year we have an unprecedented decision by the Supreme Federal Court (STF) that asks for an exact match between the proportion of candidates by race and the distribution of resources, so far this has not been confirmed.
It should be noted, however, that there are just over 20 days left for the parties to organize and distribute the funds as indicated by the STF. The data used here were taken on October 20 the Observatório 72 horas platform, a website for monitoring the Electoral and Party Fund that uses data provided by the TSE.
Despite the quotas, women continue to suffer in the distribution of resources
Women, adding up all colors or races, have so far received 26.1% of resources - less than the Resolution of the Superior Electoral Court (TSE), which requires a reserve of 30% of the Electoral Fund for women's campaigns.
White men shoot with 47.7% of the resources. Below are brown men, with 21.2%, and black men, with 3.9%. Among women, white women receive 15.2% of the total resources, while brown women receive 7.0% and black women receive 3.6%.
In all colors or races, male candidates receive more than female candidates. The lowest gender inequality in the distribution of resources is among blacks, in which women receive 48.1% of the total, and men 51.9%. In the case of self-declared white, brown or indigenous candidates, women receive only about a quarter of the resources, while the rest goes to men.
Indigenous and yellow people receive a value below 1.0% of the total resources. Within this group, the biggest transfer is to yellow men (R $ 1,030,850), then to yellow women (R $ 552,381), then to indigenous men (R $ 366,296) and finally to indigenous women (R $ 131,906 ).
How are the parties with more resources, PSL and PT, distributing their transfers?
The two parties receiving the most funds the FEFC and the Party Fund in 2020 are the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) and the Partido Liberal Social (PSL). PT receives just over 201 million reais the FEFC and 65.3 million the Party Fund. The PSL receives approximately 199 million the FEFC and 73.7 million the Party Fund.
The PT, so far, has transferred 36.3 million reais, of which 66.9% is for white applicants. Regarding the gender distribution, 33.7% of the budget is with applications women - thus fulfilling the reserve of 30%. It should be noted that 18.5% of the resources are with applications white women, 12.2% black women and 2.9% brown women.
The PT campaign with the most resources is that of Jilmar Tatto, candidate for mayor of São Paulo, with almost 4.5 million reais. The campaigns of Benedita da Silva, candidate for mayor of Rio de Janeiro, and Major Denice, candidate for mayor of Salvador, both female and self-declared black, received, respectively, 5.4% and 2.5% of the total. resources.
Jilmar Tatto's campaign alone exceeds the amount passed on to candidates Rio and Salvador added to all applications black women the PT. Representative of the party machine and with very low intention to vote, Tatto's candidacy is a symbol of criticism of the party even internally. In an article by Leonardo Avritzer in this Observatory, we analyzed the difficulty that Tatto's candidacy has in this election.
The PSL has already transferred 41.3 million reais, 56% of which to white men. The total for whites is 69.4%, and for women it is 27.6%, not complying with the rules for the distribution of funds so far. Black women received 2.4 million reais, which represents 5.8% of the funds transferred, but almost all (2.3 million reais) went to a single person, Vanda Monteiro, a candidate for mayor of Palmas.
Concentration of resources electoral and party funds
The campaign with the most funds, for now, is that of João Campos (PSB), candidate for mayor of Recife, with 7.5 million reais. Bruno Covas (PSDB), candidate for mayor of São Paulo, comes in second place in the index of concentration of funds of the funds, with 7 million reais. Thirdly, there is the campaign of Alfredo Nascimento, PL candidate for Manaus City Hall, with 6 million reais , and then Jilmar Tatto (PT), with just under 4.5 million. This means that 6% of the total has been transferred so far to these four candidates, which correspond to 0.02% of the total of candidates for mayor across the country.
Among the female candidates, Delegate Martha Rocha, PDT candidate for the City of Rio de Janeiro, was the one with the most resources, with R $ 4 million. Among the candidacies for councilor, the candidacy of Milton Leite (DEM), São Paulo, is the one that has received the most resources so far, totaling 2.2 million reais.
What to do if the money arrives in the last week?
The funds transferred to the campaigns are used, mainly, to advertise the applications. That is, they are essential so that the person can be known by the population, and thus be chosen a myriad of applications. These resources can be used to spend on staff, graphic materials, digital campaigns, among other things.
In 2020, in addition to the Party Fund and FEFC, candidates can finance their campaigns with their own resources, donations supporters, holding events or selling goods.
Although they are not the only source of funds for a campaign, the transfers parties and the FEFC correspond to important support, especially for those who do not have their own resources. Poorer candidates are more dependent on these resources to build their applications. It is up to the funds, to a large extent, to equalize the dispute, guaranteeing minimum conditions of competitiveness for all and all who wish to be representatives of the population
There are some that have some future transfer and are managing to move. Others, however, are unable to act until they receive public funds. If the parties, which now by judicial decision must distribute resources proportionally by gender and race or color, do not do so the beginning, some campaigns will have more difficulty structuring themselves for the final stretch. And then, to complete, we will be facing a waste of public resources.
Exploring loopholes in the rules and escaping representativeness
The recent decisions mentioned above, which refer to reserving 30% of the resources for women's candidacies and their distribution among blacks and whites in proportion to the number of candidates of each race, aim to have more diversity and representativeness in politics. However, they have often been circumvented by parties.
The decisions do not specify whether the distribution of resources is only for proportional positions or also for the majority. A subterfuge used by the parties has been to present women and blacks as candidates for vice. Majority campaigns generally cost more than proportional campaigns and by investing in a majority candidacy that has a vice woman and / or black, parties are able to achieve the goals without necessarily changing the distribution of resources internally.
A UOL article showed that in 2020, 41.7% of the candidates for vice of the main cities are women, a number that was 27.8% in 2016.
Issues such as quotas and the proportionality in the distribution of resources generate resistance part of the population, which takes a stand against affirmative policies. For this reason, they need to be agreed and not allow, either through unpreparedness or intention, dubious interpretations or misrepresentations. Otherwise, they become both unpopular and ineffective measures.
With the results of the elections, it will be possible to analyze the resources transferred and who was elected or not. But, for now, the distribution of resources already transferred and the high investment in women vices seem to indicate that the parties have given their way of contributing to yet another white and male majority election, without breaking the rules of the game.