Catholicism is a strand of Christianity, which believes that Jesus is the Savior of the world.
Catholics preach salvation sins by believing in Jesus, the incarnation of God made man.
The cross is the ultimate symbol of Catholicism
Jesus was born in a small town called Nazareth. Around the age of 30 he began to preach and attract disciples, who recognized him as "Christ", which means "anointed" in Greek.
His teachings also made enemies. Condemned by Jews and Romans, he was tried and sentenced to death on the cross. His disciples claim that he would have risen, that is, conquered death.
His disciples and apostles preached his doctrine that clashed with paganism, polytheism and certain moral practices of the Roman Empire. Thus, a long period of persecution followed.
This would only cease when the Edict of Milan, which prohibited the persecution of Christians, was promulgated, around 313.
then on Christianity began to grow, until the official religion of the Roman Empire was transformed in 392.
The Pope is the symbol of unity among Roman Catholics and today, Francis I occupies this post
The division between Roman Catholicism and Orthodox Catholicism arose the dispute between the Bishop of Rome and the patriarchs of the East over how the church was organized. There was also a theological dispute about the Holy Spirit.
This episode, dated 1054, is known as the Eastern Schism.
Unable to reconcile these opposing views, the leaders of each church excommunicate each other. Thus, the Roman Apostolic Catholic Church and the Orthodox Apostolic Catholic Church are formed.
While the Roman Apostolic Catholic Church follows the guidelines of the Pope, in the Orthodox Church, the local bishop has the last word. So we have the Russian Orthodox Catholic Church, the Bulgarian Catholic Orthodox Church, etc.
Both worship the saints. However, the former venerate them using sculptures, pictures, prints, etc. On the other hand, the latter do not admit three-dimensional images and their churches are covered with paintings.
Another characteristic that distinguishes them is the fact that a married man can be a priest, with the consent of his wife. In the Roman Catholic Church this would not be possible, as celibacy is mandatory for priests.
Orthodox do not share the existence of purgatory with the Romans, for them there is only heaven and hell.
Catholicism in Brazil and in the World
In Brazil, Catholicism is the religion that has the largest number of believers and was brought at the time of its colonization.
Through the Society of Jesus, indigenous people were taught and catechized in the Roman religion. Later, the Franciscans and other religious orders settled in Brazil.
Catholicism represents the largest religious community in the world, with a greater presence in Europe and America.
Its headquarters are in the Vatican and its maximum leader, currently, is Pope Francis.
Popular Catholicism and Social Catholicism
Popular Catholicism is present in the least favored areas.
It was brought to Brazil by the simplest Portuguese, who did not belong to the elite. Here it was mixed with the belief of black Indians and slaves.
Praying while holding the robe of a saint, making promises and sympathies, among others, are practices that characterize popular Catholicism.
Social Catholicism, on the other hand, arose the concern shown by Pope Leo XIII with social and economic issues, especially raised by the exploitation of workers under capitalism.
this concern, social doctrine became part of the teachings of the Catholic Church.
Likewise, in Brazil, there is a mixture of religions of African origin such as Candomblé and Umbanda with Catholicism.
The source of Catholic faith is the Bible and the Oral Tradition of the Church;
Catholics believe in the Holy Trinity, three people - Father, Son and Holy Spirit - who form one God.
They believe in the intercession of the Virgin Mary and in the saints, who were people who lived according to biblical teachings.
Every Sunday and day considered to be holy, Catholics must go to Mass, the Eucharist is celebrated and excerpts the Bible are heard and commented on by a priest.
The faithful believe that they receive the grace of God through receiving certain rituals, called sacraments, throughout the Christian life. There are seven sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Confession, Order, Marriage and Extreme Unction.
Catholicism and Protestantism
In 1517, with the publication of Martin Luther's 95 theses, Catholicism was no longer the only known aspect of Christianity in Europe.
Through the Protestant Reformation a new mane emerged anger to interpret the Bible and worship God.
Protestants keep the belief that Jesus is the Son of God and Savior of the world intact. However, they abolished the cult of saints, the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and started to use the vernacular language and not Latin in their rites.
These ideas quickly found adherents and other intellectuals who deepened Luther's ideas such as Calvin, Zwiglio, Wesley, among many others.