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Saúde / 14/01/2021


Vaccines with 60% to 70% efficacy are able to control flu and tuberculosis

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Vaccines with 60% to 70% efficacy are able to control flu and tuberculosis

Fonte CONTIOUTRA

Some of the vaccines included in the PNI (National Immunization Program) calendar are even less effective than those of vaccines against the new coronavirus that have already been published, but which nevertheless have great collective impacts.

Developed by scientists at the Butantan Institute, in partnership with the Chinese pharmaceutical company Sinovac, Coronavac achieved 78% effectiveness in mild cases of Covid-19, according to don Butantan tests in phase 3 of the research. The index is considered good, but the success in eradicating covid-19 depends on more factors.

With Carlos Madeiro, the efficiency of a vaccination is also calculated taking into account aspects such as the target audience and the vaccination coverage achieved. It follows, therefore, that it is of fundamental importance to vaccinate the right people in sufficient numbers to stop the virus.

After being heard by UOL, Isabella Ballalai, vice president of SBIm (Brazilian Society of Immunizations), explained that “No vaccine is 100% effective”.

Some of the vaccines included in the PNI (National Immunization Program) calendar are even less effective than those of vaccines against the new coronavirus that have already been published, but which nevertheless have great collective impacts.

It is worth mentioning that, over the years, Brazil managed to get rid of or make infectious diseases less incident thanks to vaccination. This is the case of smallpox and polio, for example. Also through vaccination, cases and deaths yellow fever and influenza were reduced, with vaccinations of the target audience or through campaigns. Diseases such as measles have returned, not due to the lack of effectiveness of the vaccine (which reaches 95% to 97% in the second dose), but due to low vaccination coverage.

A vaccine known to Brazilians with less efficacy than CoronaVac is influenza (flu), given annually to the elderly and priority groups. It prevents flu strains, such as H1N1, but has an average effectiveness between 60% and 70%. The value, however, varies over the years and has already reached less than 50%.

“There is a difference in the CoronaVac vaccine for the influenza vaccine: as the influenza vaccine is made with viruses that most circulated in the previous winter in the Southern Hemisphere here in Brazil, there is sometimes a mismatch between the strains. So, the effectiveness decreases, this is normal, we measure it after vaccination ”, explains Melissa Palmieri, director of the São Paulo regional office of SBIm (Brazilian Immunization Society).

In the case of the new coronavirus, there are now dozens of variants, but all one strain. Therefore, the vaccines already produced confer immunity against any existing form of SARS-Cov-2.

Science is still working to improve immunization. Because we do not yet have mass vaccination, points will still be clarified as to whether transmission will be reduced with vaccination using current immunizers.

“We have more effective, less effective vaccines. But it is factors such as the strategy, the target audience and the number of people to be vaccinated that will bring the result into practice. Effectiveness alone is not a parameter, ”adds the SBIm specialist.

As in the case of CoronaVac, other immunizers in the country do not eliminate the disease, but prevent its severe forms, such as the bacillus that causes tuberculosis.

As each infectious agent has its own behavior, each vaccine has its technology and way of acting. Effectiveness is considered as a prerequisite. For example: to be approved by Anvisa, a vaccine against the new coronavirus would have to reach at least 50%.

“The tuberculosis vaccine is not very effective, it is 60% for the classic pulmonary form. But it prevents severe forms of the disease. It is a way of working to reduce the impact of the disease ”, explains the epidemiologist, professor and researcher Ana Brito, Fiocruz (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz) and UPE (University of Pernambuco).

The tuberculosis vaccine prevents serious forms such as tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis (which spreads throughout the body). It must be given in babies and is free. In the case of CoronaVac, the effectiveness against the severe form of covid-19 was 100%, according to the government of São Paulo.

Some immunizers manage to prevent the disease. “This is the case with vaccines against measles or rubella, for example, which are able to prevent the disease by producing an immunity pool. And in theory, protection against the disease lasts longer and may even be permanent ”, she says.


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